Konflikte um Wasser in Marokko : ökologische und soziopolitische Ursachen sowie Möglichkeiten der Konflikttransformation

Collection

Science politique

Citation

Houdret, Annabelle (1976-....), “Konflikte um Wasser in Marokko : ökologische und soziopolitische Ursachen sowie Möglichkeiten der Konflikttransformation,” Bibliothèque numérique Paris 8, accessed August 19, 2019, https://octaviana.fr/document/145515184.

About

L'objectif essentiel de ce travail est de comprendre, à l'exemple du Maroc, comment différents facteurs politiques, sociaux, économiques influencent l'émergence et le déroulement des conflits autour de l'eau. Sur la base d'une évaluation de trois approches théoriques existantes (la sécurité environnementale, les théories de la gestion des biens communs, et la recherche sur les conflits), nous développons une approche d'analyse propre à la problématique des conflits autour de l'eau au sein des Etats. Après une analyse des dimensions sécuritaires de la pénurie de la ressource, nous identifions les défis majeurs pour la région du Moyen Orient et de l'Afrique du Nord. A travers une analyse des structures politiques et socio-économiques du Maroc, nous identifions de potentielles causes structurelles de conflits dans ce pays. L'étude de cas dans la zone du Souss nous permet ensuite d'analyser, à l'aide d'un travail de terrain extensif, l'impact des processus écologiques et socioéconomiques sur l'émergence des conflits d'eau. Nous démontrons qu'un profond décrochement entre petites et grandes exploitations agricoles a eu lieu dans les dix dernières années et qui s’accentue encore aujourd'hui. Nous révélons également qu'un projet de partenariat public-privé pour l'irrigation accentue ces processus et contribue à l'émergence des conflits autour de l'eau. Par ailleurs, nous évaluons le succès de différents types médiateurs dans ces conflits. Finalement, sur la base de ces données, nous évaluons le potentiel de conflits présent et à venir dans cette région. Sur la base de ces résultats, nous analysons les tendances majeures au Maroc concernant la valeur politique de l'allocation de l'eau ainsi que changement des relations entre la société marocaine, le gouvernement et la maison royale. Finalement, nous proposons des possibilités d'une transformation et d'une prévention des conflits autour de l'eau s'adressant à la coopération au développement et aux politiques nationales.

Water scarcity increasingly provokes conflicts with often violent tendencies. As water management is determined by socio-political structures, governance plays a key role in the emergence and resolution of these conflicts. Based on a case-study of water conflicts in Morocco, the key objective of the present study is to understand how different political, ecological and socio-economic factors interact in the dynamics of these disputes. The first of the nine chapters introduces the topic by reviewing the possibilities of measuring water scarcity and its impact. This is done by exploring the situation in the MENA-region, and by analysing the security implications at the international level as well as in the context of broader security concepts. The second chapter evaluates the value of three theoretical approaches to the study of water conflicts: common pool resources theories, environmental security approaches, and conflict research. On the basis of this assessment, the third chapter presents a specific analytical and methodological approach by adapting theories of conflict transformation to the study of water conflicts. Four working hypotheses are developed regarding the root causes of water conflicts, the type of farmers most affected and the potential for mediation. Chapters 4 and 5 analyse potential root causes of water conflicts in Morocco. Chapter 4 concludes that the political system with the particular role of the king and his alliances with rural elites is challenged by the lack of legitimacy of democratic institutions, the increasing influence of civil society and religious actors, and the emergence of new economic elites. Chapter 5 analyses water and agricultural policies in Morocco and concludes that water scarcity, the effects of trade liberalisation, and incomplete decentralisation processes contribute to increasing social disparities and may fuel conflict. Chapters 6 and 7 analyse the case of water conflicts in the Souss region in Southern Morocco. The region is highly affected by water scarcity. At the same time, it is of strategic importance to the export-oriented, lucrative citrus fruit production. In this context, the study analyses the increasing marginalisation of small farmers and the problems of public water management, which is challenged by influential private investors and illegal drilling. It also examines the pilot project ElGuerdane for water mobilisation and distribution through a public-private partnership in irrigation. The analysis reviews the project's technical and financial aspects, and its political and environmental implications. Chapter 7 introduces a typology of water conflicts developed on the basis of the author’s field research. It then presents the results of the empirical investigations including a large number of expert interviews, the study of six cases of water conflicts, and about 100 standardised interviews with farmers. The chapter concludes that an important marginalisation process of small farmers takes place in the valley, reveals that these farmers are also more often affected by conflicts over irrigation and drinking water, and examines the success of different mediators in this context. Chapter 8 points to the significance of these results for larger socio-political processes in the country and reveals four key trends characterising the changes in the relationships between society, king and government. Furthermore, the perspectives for water conflict transformation and the need for further research are developed. The last chapter presents a practical concept for enhancing conflict sensitivity in the water sector and for preventing violent escalation of tensions. It proposes three overall objectives in this regard: (a) understanding water conflicts as factors of socio-political (de-)stabilisation; (b) identifying conflict potentials and supporting transformation processes; and (c) dealing constructively with water conflicts. Concrete measures are proposed for the implementation of each of these objectives. Finally, the conclusion reviews the main challenges in the study of water conflicts and summarises the key findings.

Subject

Gestion des conflits -- Maroc Cultures irriguées -- Maroc Développement rural -- Maroc Maroc -- Politique et gouvernement

Creator

Houdret, Annabelle (1976-....)

Contributor

Sintomer, Yves (sous la direction de) Hippler, Jochen (1955-....) (sous la direction de)

Source

Paris 8, BU Saint-Denis, Magasin 2, TH2668/1 & TH2668/2

Date

2008/09

Identifier

145515184

Is Replaced By

2008PA083044

License

Toute reproduction même partielle est interdite sans accord exprès de(s) l'auteur(s) ou ayant-droit(s)

Index

Science politique

Domain (Dewey)

320 Science politique : l’Etat et le gouvernement